\"getting the lead out\" in hartford, connecticut: a multifaceted lead-poisoning awareness campaign.
Poisoning Prevention information throughout the city.
Health sector personnel have collected leading measures to assess the scope and effectiveness of activities
Knowledge of poisoning, recall of sports ingredients, and reports of 180 mostly minority/preschool parents on measures taken to prevent lead poisoningage children.
The main results are as follows:)
The recall range of active components is from 21. 5 to 62.
6%, newspaper advertisements and signs on buses and billboards are most often recalled and videos are played in public
The least frequently recalled access TV
More than 45% of respondents reported that they had taken steps to prevent lead poisoning because there was at least one activity component and newspaper advertising was the most effective component of prompting lead
Prevention of poisoningc)
The respondent\'s awareness of how medical staff and procedures can and cannot detect and prevent lead poisoning in children is particularly low.
The campaign has prompted caregivers to take steps to prevent lead poisoning and may help public health professionals in other communities develop new ideas through which to start similar initiatives.
Key words: Children\'s Health, Community Health, lead poisoning awareness, public health campaign, urban health
The impact of lead poisoning in children has been widely documented. Long-
Long-term effects include IQ deficiencies, attention disorders, and fine and overall motor skills disorders [
Review byEllis and Kane (2000)].
Kids from low-
Income families living in urban environments are at particularly high risk of exposure to lead and its sequelae (Pirkle et al. 1994).
According to 1990 of the United StatesS.
According to the Census, Hartford ranked first in Connecticut.
Risk factors for poisoning, including the number of children under 6 years of age, the proportion of poor children and-risk housing (i. e.
Housing built before 1978, in particular housing built before 1950; U. S.
Census Bureau 1990).
In 1993, the Hartford Ministry of Health cooperated with regional hospitals and communities
The organization, city and stare health departments of the University of Connecticut School of Medicine have created an alliance-
Community Health Partnership in Hartford-
Improve public health in the city.
As part of these improvement efforts and in response to evidence of early lead risk factors in Hartford, the Hartford Department of Health, the Hartford Regional Lead Treatment Center, the Hartford lead safety House established a lead poisoning prevention and education program in 1999.
The project is funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of the United States. S.
Department of Housing and Urban Development, Connecticut Department of Public Health and the United StatesS.
Environmental Protection Bureau (U. S. EPA)
Aims to raise awareness of lead poisoning and to cultivate behaviour that leads to lead poisoning
Poisoning Prevention for residents of Hartford.
According to recent estimates (
State Department of Public Health 2000)
Elevated levels of blood lead ([
Greater than or equal to]10[micro]g/dL)
Of the children aged 1 to 2 in Hartford, about 1 year old.
Overall, the proportion of children in these age groups in Connecticut is 80 times higher, indicating a strong demand for such programs.
In this report, we describe the multifaceted public awareness implemented in Hartford City as part of the lead poisoning prevention and education program and provide evidence of community scope and effectiveness.
The campaign aims to take advantage of public space in new ways and to take advantage of opportunities to disseminate public health information that is often overlooked.
The activity involved the following 10 key components.
In 1999, the Hartford Health Department produced a video called \"perfect partnership,\" which has been broadcast multiple times on public access television and across all 10 public in the city
The video aims to raise awareness of lead poisoning and describes the partnerships established between the public and private sectors in Hartford City to raise awareness and reduce risk, provide services to children and families affected by lead poisoning.
The children\'s art exhibition, held in the national capital on October 1999, the Hartford Ministry of Health and the Connecticut State Department of Public Health coordinated an art show at the State Capitol building, showed werechosen\'s entry in the lead poisoning prevention poster contestheld describing the harm of lead poisoning to students at Hartford Primary School.
Local hardware store, educational display.
With America. S.
During EPA\'s \"Keep clean\" campaign, Hartford Health Department presented an educational table, 2001, in front of the local Hartford hardware store from April to 2000.
The goal is to communicate information about lead poisoning and lead to customers and pedestrians
Safety work practices and inform residents that more information is available to the health department of Hartford.
The Hartford Health Department has issued illegal advertisements (ads)
From April 1-20, 2000 June 30, year 00 in Connecticut Dick state of main newspaper and two home is small of local Hartford newspaper in stressed that lead poisoning prevention.
The ads targeted different groups of people, including grandparents and contractors.
One example of an advertisement is two Africans.
American boys encourage readers to test lead for their children and families.
Thead includes the telephone numbers of the Hartford Health Department and the Connecticut Children\'s Medical Center. Billboards.
From April 2000 to April 2001, the Hartford Department of Health released educational publicity messages in English and waves on 16 billboards in Hartford.
The information included a woman playing with a child and a sentence, \"he got eyes from grandma, laughter from dad, lead poisoning from home.
\"Since its initial operation, these billboards have continued to be posted throughout the city.
Milk Carton sports.
In May 2000, Hartford Ministry of Health cooperated with a local dairy company in almostone million milk distributed in Connecticut, Rhode Island, Westchester County, New York, and Westchester, Massachusetts
The ads feature children\'s drawings and the phrase \"a good reason to prevent lead poisoning.
\"Signs of city bus and bus shelters.
In May 2000, Hartford Health Department, in cooperation with the Connecticut Transportation Authority, placed educational signs on external buses inside 120 city buses
The tail of the other 20 buses and the walls of the city\'s five bus shelters.
These signs posted in English and waves address the hazards of lead poisoning and highlight the importance of having children tested.
They continue to be posted on buses throughout the city.
Signs on municipal sanitation trucks.
Starting in January 2001, the Hartford Department of Health launched a series of 4-ft x 8-
The Financial Times released a sign of poisoning awareness on the side of 13 municipal sanitation trucks in Hartford (Figure 1).
The signs convey the same message as the billboard and are released in English and Spanish.
As far as we know, this campaign is the first time in the United States to use municipal sanitation trucks to raise awareness about lead poisoning in children.
The signs continue to be posted on sanitation trucks throughout the city.
Orange juice carton sports.
In September 2001, Hartford Ministry of Health, in collaboration with a local dairy company, printed lead awareness information on the side of about 300,000 orange juice cartons distributed in four northern regions
Eastern states including Connecticut.
The campaign took place after the milk carton campaign, which was held 20110 months, including similar pictures and information. Prevent-lead-
The city of Hartford cooperates with the United States. S.
Postal services and the United StatesS.
For the first time, the Department of Housing and Urban Development has imposed a death penalty in the United States.
The center to prevent lead poisoning canceled the postmark.
This postmark applies to almost everyone who stamps it.
Class cards and letters mailed in Connecticut on October 2001.
There is an illustration of a house on the postmark that says \"let\'s give each child a safe home \".
\"All components of the activity (
Call the Hartford Health Department to learn more about lead poisoning.
Activities assess the scope and effectiveness of this activity and determine which parts seem to be most successful in terms of these end points, we have designed all anonymous questionnaires and worked with the staff of the Hartford Health Department, to distribute it to nine cities in the city --
Run the Early Learning Center (ELCs; i. e.
Day care center)
In the city of Hartford.
ELC staff distributed the questionnaire for 2002 to all customers who received or sent children at the facility.
As a help to the project management staff, the Hartford Health Department purchased educational literature for use by children of each ELCs.
We focus on people who care for preschool children, as children of this age group are most vulnerable to lead poisoning.
At the time of research, customers in the city
Consisting of approximately 272 caregivers (
Representing approximately 286 registered children).
The questionnaire we use consists of four parts (Appendix 1).
Part includes a series of real/false questions to assess all aspects of general leads
Knowledge of poisoning.
These projects are adapted from existing health education materials being used by the Hartford Department of Health, previously studied and developed by the Connecticut Civic Research Group (Hartford, CT)
A leading treatment center in Hartford.
As part of this assessment, we are trying to address the knowledge of lead poisoning, as previous studies have shown that although caregivers may be aware of the risks associated with lead poisoning, their knowledge of possible ways to prevent lead poisoning is usuallyMahon 1997;
Mehta and Binns 1998; Polivka1999;
Potter and Severson 2000).
The second part of the questionnaire discusses the scope of each activity component.
Respondents were asked to indicate whether they remembered seeing the components.
The third section discusses the effectiveness of each component.
Respondents were asked to indicate whether they had taken specific steps in the past year to understand or prevent lead poisoning and whether they had taken those steps because they had seen or heard the content of the activity.
Then ask the answer to which component the person pointed out (s)
They were prompted to take these steps.
Section IV includes demographic information such as the respondent\'s ethnicity, age, relationship with the child or child in question, the number of children owned by the respondent, the age of the child and the total annual income.
Items included in the questionnaire are shown in Appendix 1.
We received the questionnaire from 180 respondents (
66% of total customers).
More than 85% of respondents were black (i. e.
African, Caribbean or Viking origin)or Hispanic.
In these facilities, the mother of the children completed part of the survey, about 9% of which was done by the father.
Respondents aged between 16 and 62 (
Average age is about 30 years old).
The income of respondents ranges from $5,000 a year to $40,000 a year.
Nearly half of the samples earned between $15,000 and $29,999 a year. 00.
Each family has two children on average.
Knowledge of lead poisoning.
Table 1 lists the specific items used to assess lead poisoning knowledge and the percentage of reactions to answer \"real\" for each item.
We note that there is particularly little knowledge of the facts in our sample about)
Some folk remedies may cause the harm of lead poisoning, B)
Cooking and drinking with cold water can reduce leakage.
It is particularly noteworthy that 96% of respondents did not properly support breastfeeding as a way to prevent lead poisoning in children.
More than 60% of respondents said they mistakenly believed that \"Lead poisoning can easily be detected by having a doctor check the child \".
\"We also note that some aspects of lead poisoning knowledge vary from income to income.
For example, the likelihood of respondents earning more than $30,000 a year is greatly reduced ,(p < 0. 05)
Than other groups (incorrectly)
Immunization is a way to reduce the risk of lead poisoning in children. Campaign reach.
Table 2 shows the percentage of respondents reporting various components of the recall activity.
The recall rate of the active component is from 62.
6% of newspaper advertisements fell to 21.
The ranking of market components is: newspaper advertising, signage on buses, billboards, signage on sanitation trucks, display in shops, advertising on milk/juice containers, art exhibitions and videos.
Interestingly, whencampaign reach was evaluated in four age groups (16-24, 25 29, 30-
39 years, 40 years, 62 years)
Respondents aged 40
The most likely video to be recalled is 62.
We note that 45% of respondents in this age group recalled this video (
Contrast 37. 2,17. 4, and 18.
The proportion of other age groups was 0% respectively;