pollination of ficus elastica : india rubber re-establishes sexual reproduction in singapore

by:YEROO     2019-10-24
Called Indian rubber (
Although its geographical origin is not clear)
, Is an important source of latex in the early 19 th century, widely planted in tropical Asia.
Like all the figs.
Elastica relies on tiny, highly specific wasps for pollination, according to a detailed study in Singapore in 1930, by losing the pollinator F.
The elastic curve is within 20 or 30 years.
However, there are about 2005 wild seedlings.
The elastic curve began to appear in Singapore.
We identified the pollinator as starting from F.
The elastic curve of 1885 is in Bogor.
Visit the Bago Botanical Garden to discover not only F.
Pine fruit is pollinated by Pine fruit.
But there is clear evidence that it has been breeding naturally there for decades.
Although there are more than 50 native fig plants in Singapore,
Elastica has not pollinated for at least 70 years, probably starting with the introduction of the 19 th century.
These observations demonstrate the extraordinary specificity of this interaction and the ability to wait for pollinators through figs, demonstrating a way in which this highly specific interaction is stable in evolution.
Before the discovery of vulcanization in 1844, latex was harvested from various tree species including Indian rubber trees.
At the end of the 18 th century and the end of the 19 th century, due to the promotion of the European Industrial Revolution, the demand for latex is increasing, resulting in widespread planting in tropical Asia.
However, with the discovery of vulcanization of fake rubber trees ()
Rubber from Amazon became a good source of rubber, and rubber plantations in India were eventually abandoned.
Unfortunately, the early widespread planting of rubber in India masks its geographical origin.
In 1887, King described it as a wet forest species crossing Malaya from the Himalayan region in northeastern India. However, E. J.
H Corner, who works at the Singapore Botanical Garden in his 1930 s and is a well-known regional expert in classification and biochemistry, noted that it will not naturally appear in low-lying forests in Malaysia or Thailand.
In addition, he noted that recent investigations did not confirm the rich early descriptions of as in the forests of Assam and Myanmar, suggesting that early observations may be abandoned plantations.
In 1874, Strettell found a large number of individuals and attached seedlings in the limestone forest in northern Myanmar, and the famous Dutch botanist Blume described it in the limestone forest in West Java.
Corner also mentioned other limestone crops from Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia.
In addition, widespread planting from cuttings leads to the emergence of sterile clones, which, even today, constitute most individuals in cultivation.
From India to Singapore, some cultivated individuals are fertile, but these individuals never know how to sow seeds.
Therefore, Corner suggested extinction in the wild.
It is a common plant for indoor and outdoor viewing.
Throughout the tropical region, it is a common tree in streets and parks. as an indoor ornamental plant, it is one of the most widely distributed plants today.
Belonging to the genus figs, there is a general
About 750 tropical species worldwide.
Like other members of the mulberry family (Moraceae)
All the figs have latex.
Although the latex is particularly rich and sticky, this probably leads to its cultivation for latex production.
Fig has a unique pollination system and is considered as a classic example of exclusive and mutually beneficial symbiosis.
Strictly speaking, the fruit of the fig is a kind of golden tower --
The structure of the shape arranged with small flowers of figs, closed on the neck through overlapping buds.
When figs are easy to accept, the bracts release, allowing female fig wasps to enter, although they lose their tentacles and wings in the process.
Once in, the Hornets pollinate the single-ovulated female flowers and spawn in some of them.
A seed that accepts wasp eggs develops into a gallbladder that protects and nourishes the larvae inside.
The seeds of pollinated flowers that did not receive wasp eggs develop into seeds in a normal way.
The system is an example of seed predator pollination, according to which the plant abandons a portion of the seed to feed the developing pollinator larvae.
About a month later, the adult male wasp chewed them in a way that came out of their insect body and mated with the insect body --
Closed women.
The females then appear, collect pollen on the road, and disperse the accepted figs of the same species looking for spawning.
Female wasps use wind-assisted diffusion before finding a tree with the correct species to accept figs by identifying specific floral notes, sometimes for long-distance propagation.
Fig plants therefore rely entirely on fig pollinators for pollination services, and pollinators rely entirely on fig plants to breed offspring.
In addition, it is a very specific interaction.
In any particular region, most of the fig species are made up of a single species --
Specific pollinators-although the geographical transformation of the pollinator species, the presence of the same domain pollinators of two or more pollinator species, and the presence of the swindler (co-
\"Pollination\" fig wasps without pollination)
Already described.
It is estimated that the genus has a history of just over 75 million years, and systematic development studies show that generally (but imperfect)pattern of co-
The formation of species of fig and pollinator lineage.
As mentioned above, because the production of seeds has never been observed (
Wild seedlings have never been observed)
The Horn assumes that the pollinator must be extinct, and therefore ,.
Extinct in the wild.
There are about 2005 young plants in Singapore.
Began to appear, including some strange places such as the top of the bus shelter, indicating the production of wild seedlings.
According to a quick survey, there are seeds in figs.
According to our understanding of fig biology, there are three possible explanations. (1)
Wild seedlings produced by non-fusion reproductive system. (2)
A pollinator of the same domain fig has settled in the population and is now its pollinator. (3)
The original pollinator.
In fact, Singapore has not been extinct and has only recently been colonised.
We started to look at these three assumptions, and in the process, we were. . . .
Custom message
Chat Online 编辑模式下无法使用
Chat Online inputting...
Hi, Thank you for visiting our website. What product you are looking for? May I know your WhatsApp number and email ? our business manager will contact you soon.