when the personal is made political: left political art timeline, 1980-1989
See Part One, 1900-
1944, part two, 1945-
Parts 1966 and 1967-
1979, Huffington Post.
Probably in the 1960 s and 1970 s, the left wing of the United States had a fierce relationship with the mainstream media, with its broad support for civil rights, it opposes the war in Southeast Asia and the dynamic anti-mainstream culture.
But it was in the 1980 s and 1990 s that the left side made deeper and more permanent changes to the social structure, substantial progress has been made in social freedom and political balance legislation to expand the movement for racial, gender and sexual liberation economically and systematically.
The left has also developed deeper, more subtle theoretical and cultural works in higher education institutions and art, with little media notice.
After all, in the period when the West saw free policies and funding for social and educational programs implemented in the 1960 and 1970 s, the anti-culture of the generation who watched and appreciated the growth of activists achieved results of 1960 and 1970.
For visual artists in their 20 s and 30 s, this means that 1980 provides them with a publicly funded network of publications, as well as alternative exhibition and screening spaces throughout North and Western Europe, in order to exchange ideas from the left.
Naturally, in such an environment, advocates of left-wing identity politics loosely consolidate their political and economic opportunities, and ultimately expand the inclusiveness of an enclave like the art world, where, they see their ideals reflected in art in a wider range.
In the late 1970 s and early 1980 s, left-wing artists, commentators and art managers responded to the homogenization trend brought about by capital inflows by revitalizing underground creativity.
Following the concept artists of the 1970 s, they took a clear counter
Aesthetic and ideological coolism in its pursuit of beauty, consumerism and pop culture ---
Artists who are now teachers of art schools and university art departments --
The 1980 generation has incorporated conceptualism into more traditional media such as painting, sculpture, picture making and narrative performance ---
All of this suffered stigma in the 1970 s.
But, at least among left-wing artists, the return of traditional media is done at cost ---
The depreciation of craftsmanship and aesthetic charm ensures that an object was considered \"elegant art\" decades ago \".
Art on the left in 1980 s and 1990 s seeks surface values that are visually registered as rejection of commodification.
Tenacious and dirty material and look like a mass
Produced and widely disseminated images, a new evaluation of the value in the reproduction, appropriation, dispensable and irreparable properties of objects and images has been made.
Artists and critics have come to terms with theories, such as Baudrillard\'s, which evaluate copies and simulations, the theories of Lacon, drida, and Kristeva seek national centralism and false cultural certainty about the status quo signs.
Posters, wallpapers, photocopied signs, all of which quickly rot, photo images quickly disappear and are the preferred media for about 1980 left-wing political artists, especially those who join the collective that reinforces this preference.
Even the installation art, which marks the artist as post-minimalist or conceptual, is rejected if it is installed in a rich environment or lacks political activism.
1980, a new generation of artists and abandoned architectural economies performing artChallenge, mouse.
The communities covered by graffiti quickly integrated into the graffiti itself, especially the artists who Public officials are trying to sue for public vandalism.
In the end, it\'s all in vain because even thesecalled \"anti-
The works of aesthetics are incorporated into the elegant culture, and the object of surrealist discovery is also included in the elegant culture.
The Dada, Fluxus and situational artists in front of them.
So as the cycle goes on, the rest of the pioneer
Garde of the 1990 s had to admit that the new multicultural art broke the barrier and that all works were available \"high\" and \"low ---
Risk of not being stigmatized
From the social and political background and content of the left-wing art in the 1990 s and 1980 s, three different directions often dominate artists who are not interested in formal issues, and hope to radicalize their art.
All three stem from discontent with the \"ideological lock-in\" of left-wing activism and identity politics in the 1960 s and 1970 s ---
After the existentialist\'s criticism of the essence, 1980 generations of things were ridiculed as \"essentialism \".
But with the world still focusing on Vietnam, Cambodia and Thailand in the 1970 s, political Psychology, Sociology, culture, porn theory about human desire is almost entered through the back door of the left-wing political enclave without the attention of people outside the feminist and gay pride movements.
By the end of 1970, howeverS.
Withdrawing from Southeast Asia, as Western democracies run out of their previous desire for the defeat of the Empire ---
In most cases, at least, their expansion movement and intervention is over ---
Left-and right-wing politics has become increasingly active because of domestic disputes over civil rights of its citizens and immigrants.
At 1980, the slogan \"individuals are politics\" has become a colloquial mantra on university campuses, in free workplaces, at home, and even on the street.
At the same time, in more elite theoretical circles, desire has not only become the legitimate subject of political inquiry, but also become the place of political activities.
\"The individual is political\" and \"the contingency of desire\" have been so universally attached to the new left that it is almost impossible to privilege the collective target heights of the old left (
Good and fair)
In the personal accidents of basic personal identity and pornography, there was no peace faced by some advocates of the principle of individualism.
There was a similar argument between France and Britain until either the old left-leaning side gave in or died.
In addition to this, more and more women and gay people are spreading outside the western border, especially the rapid spread of the HIV reverse transcription virus to all parts of the world --
Extensive, even Conservative and Orthodox cultures are marked by obvious lefs and Rights, which are unknown in modern times. Age-
Old traditions that women in traditional cultures endure, such as headscarves, female genital mutilation, child care, male polygamy and forced marriage, suddenly divided families, places, and even people across the country joined progressive and conservative parties.
Gay and transgender-
This growth shows that it is everywhere, yet it has been severely suppressed locally and traditionally ---
Stimulating reactionary laws, penalties and executions, which in turn gave birth to the International Amnesty campaign, prompted the basic civil rights agenda to be called for diplomatic discussions before a dialogue between democratic and authoritarian states.
All of this governance is related to artists who use social and political issues as the cornerstone of Art (
Think about Hans Haq, Alfredo jar, Jenny Holzer, sildo melales, Juan Muños, Dennis Adams, Shilin ·.
It is believed that there is no art of desire, body, health, personal identity, economy, sex, gender and any form of intimacy, without first recognizing global affairs, it\'s like they don\'t have political unity without personal interests.
This is what personal politics means.
From this vantage point, you can see that the second front of art leads to the location where the border is being demolished.
1980 and 1990 are decades of Communist second world
Overthrew the authoritarian rule, and eventually disintegrated the Iron Curtain, cement wall and bronze idol of Marxism --
They are Leninist communism.
The unification of Germany, the disintegration of the Soviet Union, the entry and spread of capitalism in China, the violent and democratic coup d\' état against dictators in Latin America, Africa and Asia, and the guerrillas launched rebellion almost regardless of the border, especially in what has been called the Third World in the past few decades, capital flows forward from Western capitals to colonies, providing information for 1980 and 1990 of left-wing political art.
In some ways, whether on the left or on the right, this global disintegration of dictatorship is called the \"End of History\", an ironic wording that marks a shift in ideals, tactics, the strategy of assuming new possibilities for human society and its environment cannot be considered as either a continuation of the old utopian ideal or as being present in the same historical continuum as the emerging global order.
In some areas of art, a variant of this ideology claims \"death of art \".
\"The third front actually reflects the end of the individual\'s politics and history, because the objections that began in the 1950 s were raging in the 1960 s and resolved the long term
In the 1970 s, the radical interest group in the 1980 s became itself.
Reflection, to some extent, the theoretical transformation of aesthetic, social and political thought is considered to break the ideological parameters of early modernism.
During this period, the people liberated from the traditional authoritarian government and the revolutionary dictatorship reviewed the past accusations.
Around the world, attention has turned to assessing the effects of pre-colonial and genocide.
For those countries that have only recently been liberated from tyranny, the focus is on finding the remains of the \"missing\", or at least the record, \"millions of people disappear in prison, in collective graves, for whatever purpose, it disappeared in the air of Vietnam and Cambodia, argentina, Colombia, Chile, Guatemala, Uruguay, Brazil, Venezuela, the Balkans, the Soviet Union, China, Palestine, East Timor, South Africa, Uganda, Congo, etc.
All of these art experts are increasingly appreciating and spreading in their art and theory, to the point that by 2000, during the day\'s gallery and museum outings, it is almost impossible not to meet some political concerns expressed by many artists.
Even the highest
The auction house opened their purview to an angle.
Urban communities and remote desert, rainforest or ocean villages are filled with rich contrasts and contrasts.
It was a diversity that some ideologically informed critics condemned at the beginning of the 1980 century as an empty diversity, but that diversity was still relentless, about 20 years later, it proves itself as a factor that enables artists at the beginning of the new millennium to identify and distinguish between open and liberated art patterns to instill speech that hinders the free exchange of ideas.
Having access to such a wide range of dialogues and debates allows us as producers and consumers of art to cross the boundaries of identity and ideology and inform theory and art.
The diversity of ideals, identities and cultures prevents us from being tempted to adapt and being unconsciously conditioned, before we have the opportunity to read and experience the myriad models available in the diverse world, any system or authority.
Throughout the 1980 s and 1990 s, a number of individuals, collectives and institutions have been concerned about the differences between the \"productive\" and \"non-productive\" of society.
In terms of the concept art practice as a public objection, the Sharp (if often ironic) prosecution of human rights violations by the company and the government by the artists Hans Haq, Alfredo jar and Jenny Holzer.
In the 1980 s and 1990 s, their art went beyond the political art production of elites and populism, while also shining a model of ethical investigations into abuse of power and wealth.
In the overall timeline of political art, their most open contributions alone will be like any report from the New York Times or The Washington Post, every year, we must conduct a thorough investigation of the exposure incident, and at the same time, every bite must be given
For example, in a variety, Haacke simulated the magazine advertisement of Leyland automobile, the company provided officers to the white apartheid government in South Africa to round up vehicles holding dissidents and other \"unwelcome.
\"Haacke embezzled the actual advertising images and copywriting Leland used to attract the most affluent consumer narcissism, potentially leading all of us to see art funding companies from such a group come to us with a history of malfeasance.
Haacke\'s discovery did not hit us in the head.
If he did, many of us would simply walk away and close the discussion.
That\'s why artists are cautiously and ironically providing us with copies of the advertisements that the Leland business has prepared for a particular audience.
Which audience? \"The new-
Jaguar generation executives. .
Opened the door to the New World. . .
A world, because of its exquisite and pure class, only a few people will enter.
This is a world created for leaders rather than teams.
For those who make it and separate from the masses.
\"Along with the news pictures of the Leyland car used by black dissidents in South Africa, many eventually disappeared and died, haacke re-contextualized the company\'s arrogance and valuation of wealth and power at the expense of humanity, which was issued by a company that recognized rewards for treating itself as a master.
But for artists, there is a more relevant message, a message that is closely related to the highest class in the art world.
One of the advertising companies that promoted the South African government National Party in the 1970 and 1980 s was the South African subsidiary of Saqi and Saqi, the UK\'s most distinguished and arrogant patron of art, their purchases cement the life of many artists and curators.
After all, Haacke is most concerned about whether art has the ability to seriously criticize its own assumptions.
Alfredo Jarl took a similar route to the audience.
He has documented that he believes that people can no longer be moved or thought by news images, which is why Jaar often combines images with words or familiar signs, this has gradually revealed the hidden link between Gao\'s fiancé and the exploitation and abuse of labor and ordinary citizens in poor countries.
In \"gold in the morning\", Jaar repositioned the gold market index by pairing the gold market index with the image of workers who endure poverty wages and depressed working conditions in Amazon gold mine.
Jenny Holzer\'s response to the reported violence against women in the 1990 ethnic cleansing in Bosnia was to start her vigorous push to the Lustmord series, but to be strictly controlled and named in a German word, murder is a sexual tendency.
The final exhibition of the series is not without its terrible and shocking aspects, consisting of two desktops covered with bones classified by category, some silver bands bearing details of rape, torture and murder of women.
A series of text photos are hung on the wall written in ink containing women\'s blood on human skin.
These texts convey three chilling views on rape and murder in Bosnia: The views of survivors, observers and rapists.
Unlike Holzer\'s truth, the mind has no room to wander or escape, feeling that it is almost impossible for the individual to have different feelings for the summoned dead and surviving women.
The three artists, together with their works, formed the era of the Reagan and Bush administration, who were calmed down while ruthlessly fighting the growing indifference and innocence of the American public, steadily eating the logo of the addictive great wealth and status, which makes the 1980 generation of Era Entertainment Dynasty and Dallas
But all three artists may have realized that 30 years ago, when Guy Debo wrote at the beginning of the television era, a great deal of stupidity on television would kill the American working class that cultivated political consciousness. (
1945-view political art schedule1966. )
Since it is political to impose individuals on local activism, and the penetration of the structure of personal desires into the political paradigm can be attributed to the efforts of feminists, starting from 1980, feminism must be regarded as a distortion and weaving of the social structure of the New Left.
The comprehensive left-wing political art schedule does not represent feminist art without showing the feminist framework and building each other\'s political efforts.
At the same time, the most important political art of the new left has also grown from an alternative space, and the golden age of the latter is in
1970 in the middle1980s.
In 1960 the end of art school graduates significantly increase and new establishment of the National Endowment for the Arts Fund of funding under (NEA).
In North America, the largest number of doors opened each year is 1970: 112 Green Street, which was later renamed the white column in New York.
1971: Kitchen in New York;
A space in Toronto, Canada.
1972: bell tower; Artists Space; A. I. R.
Gallery in New York.
1973: Gallery and N. A. M. E.
Gallery of Chicago
1974: holwall, Buffalo, New York.
1975. Alternative Museum of New York;
The road to true Art, Hartford, Connecticut.
1976: Franklin Furnace, New York.
1977: New Museum of Korab and New York.
1978: New York Fashion Moda.
1979: Randolph Street Gallery, Chicago.
1980: Group materials in New York. 1982: Exit Art.
There are only a handful of such spaces, such as alternative museums and export art, which, under the guidance of Martha Wilson, are centred around Franklin Furnace, fully demonstrating left wing politics, it provides a steady stream of political subversive performing arts.
Under the leadership of Marcia Tucker, several new museums have been staged
Breaking Politics shows copying their a-in many ways-
Political exhibition, in addition to the release of the book, there are: marginalized and contemporary culture, which introduces trinh tons of cultures such as Koner West, Bell hukes, Kobe na Mercer, Stewart Hall, etc. Minh-
Ha, Monique Wittig and Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak have had a profound impact on the whole generation of artists and have reshaped the artistic environment known as multicultural in the 1990 s
Timetable for the social and political Arts of the left, part IV: 1980-2000. 1977-
1993: of the 1980 feminist art collectives, perhaps the most far-reaching is the creation of the radical art magazine \"heretical: feminist publications on art and politics\".
It may be that evil has the greatest impact on young female artists in their 1980 s. -
Women in the 1990 s redefined feminism.
This is largely due to the fact that the original heretical groups, including women, will work with writers to continue to create the most important political art in the next 30 years, critics and historians like Elizabeth Hess, Arlene bin Laden, Lucy lipad and Linda norchlin.
Heresy collectively rotated the topic selection, compilation and editing of the topic.
Therefore, each episode of heretical doctrine presents a unique visual presentation and ideological tone.
Perhaps the most memorable and far-reaching issue was the one dedicated to the great goddess in 1978, when an exciting and confident assumption was based on archaeological excavations of prehistoric and former classical art, as evidence of extensive maternal society and goddess worship, not only before the patriarchal system, but the discovery of human parent-child relations makes the principle of women the sole creator.
This is a hypothesis that has been shot down by archaeologists and mythical authors around the world, although if it survives today in a less enthusiastic form, it is because the great goddess assumption has never been overturned.
1980: real estate exhibition, the original art career in New York began in December.
1979, as a sort of radicalism, 35 artists are trying to occupy an abandoned city --
The Lower East Side of New York City owns storefront buildings and installs its real estate exhibition without permission.
\"Of course, we broke in,\" said Ellen Moore, a video artist, writer and member of the organizing committee for the show.
\"But we wrote the letter for six months and didn\'t get any answers.
The artists were pushed around by Attic landlords, banks and cities.
\"Protest against the killing of an African Elizabeth Mangham by police and bailiffs
The 1979 boycott of the expulsion of American women in frattbush opened on New Year\'s Eve.
It was not until the new year that the artists came back to discover that the space was locked by the New York Police Department under orders from the city\'s housing protection and development department.
The incentives for the \"tactical action\" of the real estate exhibition listed in the ABC No Rio Declaration are \"invasion, reorganization and admiration \";
Respect the people and their places;
\"Respect\" the Winter Palace.
This is a short one.
Long-term occupation of vacant cities
Action is illegal. -
It does not clarify any legal issues and does not require \"rights \".
\"1980: After New York art critic and political activist Lucy lippade called for artists who are concerned about society to participate in political art activities, February, A group of artists and writers organized the so-called political art document/issue (PAD/D).
The first letter of intent was issued by PAD/D on December.
\"Our goal is to provide artists with an organized relationship with society to demonstrate the political effectiveness of image-making.
One way we try to do this is to build a collection of relevant art literature from the international community.
The PAD/D file defines social issues in the broadest sense: any work dealing with issues ranging from gender discrimination and racism to ecological destruction and other forms of human oppression.
PAD/D is also involved in the production, distribution and influence of progressive art throughout the culture, sponsoring public events, actions and exhibitions of a wide range of political struggles.
This including in May 3 1981 of held of \"the Pentagon image and born to of which including pad/D members carry of placards of artist (see above)
During the demonstrations on May 3, 1981, in Washington, D. C. , it also showed that it was in New York.
The image war was designed for a massive Pentagon parade organized by the people\'s anti-war mobilization, which attracted more than 100,000 people to protest budget cuts and US involvement in El Salvador and Nicaragua.
This is only the first of many political actions initiated by the organization.
1980: In the summer of 1980, a legendary Times Square performance was held in an empty massage parlor near Times Square.
More than a hundred artists have installed or performed their work, using inexpensive and often disposable media such as graffiti, Xerox, and more traditional media such as painting, sculpture and photography, although the app and style are totally unusual.
As expected, the theme and design have adapted to the environment at that time
The artists looked for and entered the dirty entertainment and porn area.
The exhibition is a collaborative effort between Colab, an artist collective in the Lower East Side of New York, who joined forces as an artist alliance in 1977 to raise funds, organize exhibitions and share equipment;
Fashion Moda Gallery in South Bronx
ABC No Rio, another group of artists from the Lower East Side (
See Real Estate Show, above).
While Colab was a unique alliance at the time, its formation was parallel to the alternative space organized in the 1970 s, but more fluid, spontaneous, and anarchy
At the beginning, about 40 artists met each month in the lofts of different members.
Quote from Walter Robinson, who is a Colab artistorganizer (
Later became the founder and editor of Artnet. com)
\"The reason why Colab democracy works is because no one is responsible for it for a long time.
\"The Colab film screenings are often arranged in the East Village, where the group produced a cable news program, all color news, and published the co-editor\'s film magazine, X film magazine, photography, art and poetry reportage.
According to the standards of the New York gallery, the exhibition in Times Square is a purposeful mess, but it beats with a vibrant, alternative life and a mature decadent fit for the 1980 Times Square environment (
And the ideas of artists)
Just like the smell of urine on a hot summer night.
The voice of the village called it \"the first pioneer\"
Avant-garde art exhibition in the 1980 s
\"1980: Fashion Moda is located in the South Bronx storefront painted by graffiti artist Crash (Crash) from 1978 to 1993. John Matos)
Fashion Moda is described as combining all aspects of the community arts center with the international progressive arts organization, founded by artist Stefan Eins, in a very short period of time with many Halo artists such as Jenny Holzer and David wargenovic.
But there is no contribution of any Fashion Moda to be more famous than the gallery\'s introduction of graffiti art, or to shake the art and political institutions of New York and subsequent cities, the result of a professional association, when a poor young crash happened in a new gallery.
So far, Crash\'s only experience of art is his illegal attention to painted murals on New York City\'s subway cars and dilapidated buildings ---the poor kid-
Artist\'s final protest against poverty
The success of American Graffiti Art
Or natural gas in the United States)Opened on October. 18, 1980.
30 years later, it is considered to have launched the graffiti campaign advocated today (
And opponents of citizen officials)
In fact, some artists who grew up in poverty around the world now have their own graffiti art costumes, luggage and a variety of other product collections. 1980-
1985: At the beginning of the 1980 s, young artists lacked the influence to diversify the art world in New York through the infusion of color artists, but they try to lubricate the art market by bringing the representative of the marginalized ethnic group of the gallery system itself into the gallery system to avoid the penetration of diversity.
If they encounter adversity in the process of being ignored by the blue chip Gallery, these young artists are also faced with criticism from some critics and political intellectuals, because they represent one that is not their own.
However, most viewers of all races warmly welcome the expansion of the background scope of the New York art gallery, as long as this leads to a more open gallery gate for color artists.
Sadly, it\'s been a long decade before the art world is finally full of true multicultural beginnings.
During this period, John Ahern worked with the sculptures of rigobeto Torres and the paintings of Grace Graupe
Pilad and Jane Dixon have helped revive social realism, which historically and in photographs tends to social and political activism by bringing it a new audience, let them make portraits and works, and these people have hardly appeared in The New York gallery scene below 125 Street.
1981: the work of Sherri Levine is the most elegant embodiment of the art of embezzling the works of other artists and highly politicizing them.
On one level, by making an exact copy of the iconic photo of Walker Evan (above)
Levin says the modernist aesthetics and aura of the hero artist
Seer is a myth of losing trust in the era of vulgar consumerism.
Evans refers to the 1930 Poor middle class dream of having the most comfortable material environment
However, we are the product of the expansion of the middle class, and in turn, we look back in nostalgia for their innocence.
On a more problematic level, during the Great Depression, a serious description of a poor sharecroper family turned into a post-modern icon that satirizes feminist appropriation.
Levin pointed out that if only men can be recognized by criticism, then women must \"become\" men.
Ironically, when Levin was given an amazing historical classic of art and high
She has criticized funding the art market because her strategy is bold and eloquent.
In her case, the copy does become as valuable as the original.
But now that the scandal of copying another artist\'s work is challenged and surpassed, copying the same strategy cannot now bring the same success to another artist.
Therefore, Levin\'s success set an example for other women.
The dilemma is that of those successful left-wing artists who have become part of the institutions and markets that she criticizes.
The question to ask now is, since capitalism and men
Leading the world of art has opened its doors to her, is Levin still an artist on the radical left? 1983-
87: The world of high art in the first half of 1980 was dominated by the revival of new art
The Expressionist paintings were largely performed by German artists who explicitly chose their ancestors ---
Emil Norde, George Groz, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner and Max Beckman-
Forcibly cut off by the Third Empire.
Praised and ridiculed by critics in North America and Europe, the German painters calculated in the new exciting barbarians, who returned to the violent turmoil full of terrible colors and social anxiety to portray the subject of images.
Among the more political Germans, they feel that the German people are economically dependent on the business and corporate culture of the United States and Western Europe in the West, and in the east, close to a turning point, as the limits of totalitarian approach a breakthrough, the meditation and chaotic oil paintings of Jorge imdov reflect a desperate mixture of hedonism and anarchy reaching boiling points.
Although it is largely a myth and a symbol, symbolism-
Found in patterns such as the German Eagle, the Soviet sickle and the workers\' fists-
This is the prophecy of a group of political people who blame themselves for the frustration because their opponents want to blame and crush.
In all the smooth circumstances, the eagle is every German man and woman who runs because he is locked in and thus becomes himself.
Destroyed by the lack of energy exports and the realization of collective aspirations.
Cafe in Germany: think about this
Where do I stand?
The Germans live in the mosh pit of the nightclub, and under the temptation of music, they constantly stir and collide with sensory stimulation, but never realize the transcendence it promises.
1983: Louis caniz\'s poetic praise of \"him\" and \"her\" in his ulguayan torture series \", it was thousands of people who went missing during the dictatorship in Latin America between the Middle and Late 20 th century.
Most people are arrested because of a real or presumed opposition to the ruling government, or because of union or mere doubt, and are therefore thrown into a prison, a collective grave, usually both.
Most of them were victims of military forces, reverse revolutions and coups in Argentina, Colombia, Chile, Guatemala, Uruguay, Brazil and Venezuela.
However, their disappearance still plagues the collective psychology of the affected countries, in part because of their large numbers. (Argentina\'s so-
Known as a dirty war, more than 30,000 people are estimated to have died).
This problem has also resonated with some people because it has an internal connection with the United States.
In Chile, for example, the United StatesS-
Supporting a coup against Chile\'s president, El Salvador Allende, led to Gen\'s rule.
Thousands of missing Pinochet. 1983-
84: Dennis Adams sent a series of dysfunctional and deconstructed bus shelters across the United StatesS.
The artist tried to intervene in the city\'s public transport system to protect the idea of \"transit\" as a means of movement and escape for those who could not afford other means of transport.
Adams is particularly picky about ads that disturb commuters every day.
When he tried to avoid advertisers at certain traffic stations, the artist tried to cope with a reduction in the number of ads.
His strategy is to replace advertising that imposes the values of profiteers on the public with a vague political image that cannot be second guessed, and ask curious audiences to delve deeper into the signs they encounter every day.
But Adams\'s work needs to be seen by an educated public from his historical image ---
The message he posted in the advertising campaign-
Arrest Ethel and julius Rosenberg as communist spies
In fact, in order for his project to work, we must have heard that the Rosenberg couple may be the scapegoat to support a mythical red panic.
Or recognize a photo of Roy Cohen and Joe McCarthy whose career and public respect has benefited a lot by pointing to the guilt or innocence of his Rosenberg.
But if educated people already know that the threat of communism exceeds that of the United StatesS.
Is it fiction that Adams is trying to tell us further?
A thread can be found in the design of the shelf, although this thread makes things more complicated.
\"There are differences in functional practices of these structures,\" Adams said of his sanctuary . \".
\"For example, in the first bus shelter, the bench is outside the shelter, and the central wall divides the illuminated image panel in two.
\"The dysfunctional nature of this design has prompted those of us sitting in an armchair to think about a lot of questions about technology, Utopia, and the need for manipulation of architecture and urban planning,, these questions seem to have nothing to do with the image of the Rosenberg couple or their interrogators.
Yes, integrated design and images, the thinking pedestrians tend to think further about commercial interests, public institutions, and, of course, the obvious manipulation of architects and urban planners.
However, it is unlikely to think about these things during peak hours.
However, during many peak times, as images and shelters haunt us more every day, the accumulated anger has revived us.
Adams may overload our ability to read signs with contradictory readings in the short term.
But in the long run-
After waiting for a bus at his residence for a few weeks-
Our minds try to piece together the puzzles and theoretically become more flexible in their efforts.
It is this effort to solve the problem that advertising refuses to provide, which is essential for fast and simple reading.
In the culture where intellectuals are increasingly playing down the concept of truth, it is important to exercise and question the mind.
1984: Artists appeal to the United StatesS.
Intervention in Central America, a coalition
Organized by Lucy Lampard, an exhibition was held at the City University Graduate Center in New York to protest against the United StatesS.
Policy of Central America. The U. S.
In response to a request from the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States to cooperate with a Grenadian Army force for pro-
Soviet hardliners executed Prime Minister Maurice Bishop.
The installation works include the twin of Hans Haq.
Carved sculpture of AmericaS.
The isolation box of Grenada, by an 8-foot, wooden-
Flat, unpainted cubes combined with nails cut narrow window seams near the top and small vent holes.
The box can easily be mistaken for a minimalist sculpture by Donald Jude until it turns a corner and comes to the template --
Painted text: the isolation box used by the US military at the Salin prison camp in Grenada.
I said it was double.
It provides two kinds of criticism from one root.
In fact, it is a replica of the actual isolation boxes made in the invaded United States that are meant to hold detainees at the Salines Point Airport in GrenadaS.
The army has made it sue the United States on behalf of artists. S.
The violation of the Geneva Convention on Human Rights was condemned by the military and the government.
It is similar to the \"high art\" of minimalist sculpture, entering the background of the aesthetic of the art world, which highlights the new Conservative sponsorship of this art that artists and curators often contact, whether anyone knows it or not, the funds in their courts are often related to such a military invasion.
Another member of the alliance, Sue Coe, protested the invasion with a Expressionist painting against military errors recalled by the harsh title of the work: the United StatesS.
The military successfully bombed a mental hospital in Grenada.
Coe refers to 20 Grana civilians who were killed in the American War. S.
The plane mistakenly bombed the Fredericksburg psychiatric hospital near the army headquarters of grendian.
But the work of Coe is not as direct as it seems.
The psychiatric hospital theme provides an opportunity for Coe to make an analogy between the United States and the United StatesS.
King Lear by Shakespeare.
A figure in the foreground of the painting, a clearly confused patient wearing a golden crown, when Lear loses his mind and walks in the fields collecting flowers, his whole kingdom was destroyed by war.
The key here is that Lear lost it all because he pushed an honest, critical voice away from him ---
His daughter, Cordelia, is too painful for her to live.
This is Cordelia\'s mature correspondence with Coe, feminism and the left, and all their suggestions are ignored by the neo-conservative United StatesS.
The government led by actor Ronald Reagan in King Lear.
1984: Sidor melales completed the Red Shift, and his Chamber of Commerce facilities began to be installed in 1967, alluding to his native Brazilian dictatorship.
The first room, called Impregnation, was filled with hundreds of red things in a white room, a wardrobe with red clothes, and a refrigerator with red food.
While watching the contents of the room, the audience will hear the soundtrack of dripping water.
At the end of the dip, it was a dark room called Portuguese Entorno, meaning \"overflow\" and \"around \".
\"Obviously, a pool of red liquid, but taking into account the large amount of liquid, fell out of the dropped bottle absurd.
As the darkness went deeper, visitors found a dirty porcelain washbasin mounted on the slopes.
A red water-like liquid spills from the tap.
Melales pointed out that after 18 years of evolution, the device compared the oppression and violence of the military regime in power in the 1964 coup to Brazil, when melales was 16 years old.
1984: The Big Brother may not have been the embodiment of a harsh and comprehensive authoritarian system as George Orwell had foreseen in 1984.
This is not to say that the terrible 1984 people do not have a more independent and subtle parental style in Western society. By the mid-
In the 1980 s, left-wing discontent and inclusion with capitalism was seen as an effect of a latent, ubiquitous commercialism penetrating into the veins and cells of civilization.
However, indirect political action does not inspire dissent against commercial inclusion, but is not good for intellectuals and artists who are consistent with the new (if relatively short --
Ironically, vivid post-modern views are cited in clear social and political demonstrations.
Artists now dig out discrete social codes and recombine them to achieve a discrete superprogressive (if largely special) pattern of conceptual art to reaffirm personal identity
In this regard, Peter Halley excludes the form, pattern and architectural limitations implied in the social use of geometric principles and design norms identity.
Harley\'s geometric painting has been devoted to the relationship between individual selection and institutional norms, with \"cells\" or personal areas as the basic model, it must be in line with the increasingly geometric social and personal spaces in buildings and natural zoning.
Meyer Waisman chooses to identify physical markers of poverty-
Such as pastures or shantytowns, which dot the landscape of Venezuela and identify the community as a poor urban population.
Vaisman will never be content with just photos or miniatures.
He really brought ranchos into the gallery, as he did with what he called the work of Verde fufuera, Rojo dendentro, it is seen and sold to a very wealthy class that allegedly perpetuates this poverty.
Ashley bickelton explores the matrix of commercial brands as intermediate manufacturing
However, the political color of his work goes beyond the art commodity index, helping the audience to recognize that he or she himself agrees to expand commercialism.
In this regard, in a job such as torture of selfPortrait (Susie at Arles)
, Bickerton blatantly appropriated commercial and public signs attached to the metal skeleton that, to varying degrees, resemble and resemble the photo background (
A clumsy technique. backpack (
Excess consumption weight we carry with us)
And portable vending machines (
For our daily fixed consumer anesthesia)
All of this conveys the illusion that the respected social identity and status that we learn is simply the creation and manipulation of identity by companies and public institutions.
1985: The South African Army entered Botswana and killed 12 artists from the Medu art troupe while destroying the homes of several others and preventing them from printing, smuggling and posting political posters in cities and towns in South Africa.
The South African government not only banned their work, but also found it illegal and severely punished with a poster by Madu.
However, when Medu organized a meeting to train South Africans to produce their own screen-printed posters, more than 5000 South Africans crossed the border into Bostwana to attend and learn.
Fortunately, as South African dissidents have set up their own domestic screen printing workshops and studios, the desperate murder and bombing of the maidou artist by the South African government has come too late.
Despite the government\'s attempts to destroy printing equipment, detain artists and their employees, and bomb workshops, posters are increasingly popular and scattered, to some extent, they could be considered the main driver of Nelson Mandela\'s release in 1990, lifting the opposition
Apartheid, as well as the 1980 and 1990 generation of international political posters to achieve independence in 1994.
Despite the popularity of political posters in the United StatesS.
With the decline of Reagan
The Bush era, the rest of the world, especially those marked by traditional authoritarian government or revolutionary dictatorship, continues to make rational and balanced graphic requests in any of the world\'s countless hot spots.
On 1986, the meltdown of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in northern Ukraine involved Europe in the-
Nuclear demonstrations and debates.
On 1996, when the poster of Vladimir Chaika, mother of radioactive God, began to appear in Russia on the 10 th anniversary of the death of 31 people in Chernobyl, the poster of Chai Ka showed cautiously that, in the event that the Politburo opposes public discussion of the facts, there has been little change in the situation.
Announced that the Argentine poster of 1983 International Week of desaresi painted a circle of white headscarves, symbolizing the continued search for Argentine mothers and grandmothers in Mayo Square who believe to have been kidnapped or murdered during Argentina\'s military dictatorship (1976-1983).
There is a red stool on the scarf, with a military hat on it, symbolizing the Argentine military government.
Hungarian artist Istvan Orosz in his 1989 poster tovarishi Adieu! (Comrades Bye-Bye! )
Vividly express the Hungarian joy when the Soviet Union withdrew its troops from the Soviet Union
1985: Ross Bleckner proves that political art requires neither direct and sharp expression of its themes and objectives nor the presentation of these themes and objectives in the social realism of painting.
The time and place of his exhibition was decided by himself.
Even today, audiences can see romanized images depicting eulogy for lost friends, and even if they evoke collective losses from a generation of survivors, what is the cause of the AIDS epidemic?
That\'s why I walked into the Bleckner exhibition in late 1980, and although it was by no means a pious thing, it forced visitors to remain silent without any other clue than the painting in front of us.
1985: when the New York Museum of Modern Art opened the exhibition \"international survey of recent paintings and sculptures\", \"when only 17 of the 169 artists were women and all the artists were white, public outcry came from Europe or the United States.
Kynaston McShine, the show\'s curator, further ignited the fire, and he rashly said that any artist who is not on the show should rethink his career.
In protest, a group of female artists claimed to be guerrilla girls wearing gorilla masks.
The group will continue to post comments from female artists and color artist reps at museums and galleries across the United StatesS.
And later artists from Europe, as well as art trade magazines.
The girls of the guerrillas took to the streets sharply throughout the event, but also politically --
Related to this, statistics on the proportion of white men and women and all other ethnic groups represented in society
It is called the classics of art history and contemporary art. 1986-
1988: Brown feces from John Millerand gold-
Painted sculptures, together with wall reliefs, embody Herbert Marcusse\'s view that the expression of our erotic drive, is not the sublimation of these drives ---
What is their depression and transformation?
Industry and ethics approved and regulated-
Guarantee the liberation of a civilization.
In the coverage model of the property (land, houses)
Miller is brown with feces, or alternately with symbols and signs of social norms that inhibit our erotic desires, referring to Freud\'s belief that what is called
Called the principle of reality (
Or moral/social principles)
As early as parents intervene in the feces and urinating of newborns, check the principle of happiness.
It is shameful for parents to convey their happiness to babies by expressing disapproval or disgust at their waste.
Over time, authority leads children\'s creativity to productive industries ---
What is the climax of the gold standard?
Miller overturned the process with a radical attitude, prompted by Marcusse, so that the value of gold was reduced to the baby\'s feces fun, which is a manifestation of the artist\'s liberation of forced moral depression.
1987: The first public display of the name Project memorial quilt, commonly known as the AIDS Memorial Quilt, was conceived and organized by AIDS activist Cleve Jones in 1987 two years later.
The quilt was actually launched on the lawn of the National Mall in Washington, D. C. , and was soon called a memorial and celebration, the lives of all those who died of AIDS. related causes.
It is estimated that as of 2010, it weighs 54 tons and is the largest community folk art work in the world.
As social historian Gary Radman pointed out, the name Project memorial quilt filled the gap in the lives of survivors, when the funeral home and cemetery refused to deal with AIDS --
The body of the deceased was due to the social stigma of AIDS and the fear of the spread of AIDS, for some time before the disease was medically understood.
In the meantime, quilts are often the only chance for survivors to honor and celebrate the lives of their loved ones.
1987 is also a year when the established Canadian trio, known as \"universal creativity\", produced the premiere art idol of the AIDS era.
The love Idol of Robert Indiana 1960 (
The picture above is an introduction to this feature)
, Proves that its existence is powerful, because it is visually bold, and boldly uses the 1960s free love logo in concept.
Indiana\'s love is often interpreted as a response to the Vietnam War and should be included in the war against the general idea of AIDS as a weapon of gender discrimination.
The relevance of the logo, coupled with the tragedy that AIDS was born in love relations, immediately ensures that it is seen around the world as the banner for ending the infectious movement, just as the angry slogan \"Silence = Death\" has hinted at the international community of people who are truly condemned, if not potential criminals, to maintain the act of contagion.
Since the beginning of 1970, its cool art has been on display in the international arena, and its members Jorge zongtel and Felix Patz will be destroyed by the AIDS crisis, and in 1995, the death was only a few months.
Bronson, has been doing a post-art since then.
Science shamanism is prepared for a generation seeking healing, and so far science has proven itself unable to provide such treatment. (
See below for more information on the general idea. )
1987: angry at the government\'s mismanagement of the AIDS crisis, gay, bisexual and transgender people in New York City came together to form an AIDS Coalition to release powerUP.
17 members demonstrated for the first time on Wall Street in protest against the profiteering of pharmaceutical companies in the production of AZT.
As more protests were planned and the alliance grew rapidly, more and more voices became a rant that officials knew they could not ignore.
1987: Bill Olander, senior curator of the New Museum (
And my personal friends)
Invite AIDS patients
Radical Organization Act
Before a political event was staged at the Broadway window of the new museum, he did not know that he had less than 19 months left.
He does feel that he has started the catalyst for radical change, although he only sees its wheels turning in the trial run.
By 1988, activist vehicles breaking into the street from that window were called \"furious,\" after the New York Police Department\'s car brand of cruise ships and emergency fleets.
By a loose-
Knit band of ACTUP visualists--
Donald Moffett, Marlene Mati, Tom Carlin, Mark Simpson, John Lindle, Lorraine mccatlin, and Afram finkstein-
The team is affectionately referred to as the publicity department of ACT. UP.
Finkestein also organized the \"Silence = Death\" project earlier, which created a world that was both terrible and lasting --
The famous indictment and admonition, Silence = Death (
The picture above is an introduction to this feature).
From a real cognitive point of view, furri\'s propaganda is called Fact, which was avoided by the Reagan and Bush governments for real propaganda. k. a. misinformation.
The fact that the media wants to be under the carpet, anger is visibly solidified in the collective consciousness and in words.
In the visualization of anger --your-
In the face of tactics, each point is as active and effective as any of the combined colors of benaitong\'s same age shock movement.
For at least six years, the group has demonstrated all the direct marketing wisdom that Madison Avenue David Ogilvy combines with art
The shrewd vision of Charles Savage in gold square.
In a short sample of their combined aesthetics
Pragmatic Power, anger did not leave the corner of homophobia, opened the entire anti-gay carpet
Eccentric prejudices, as well as the racism, sexuality and gender bias that were hidden at the time.
The effect achieved is to develop a collective awareness of AIDS and to improve the response capacity of HIV-positive patients and their families and friends, medical professionals, government officials and charitable donors.
The difference between the consciousness and activism of the 1980 and 1990 generations seems to turn into daylight, mainly because
Demonstrations and anger/Silence = Death program advertising campaigns are everywhere, at least on the two shores of the United States.
Russian artists always seem to come to the United States with a myth, whether it\'s Komar and Melan, Oleg Kurik or Ilya Kabakov, the myth is a denial of the young and rebellious individualists, although they were swallowed up by the Soviet giants, they were found so annoying that they were spit on the west coast.
But even before we knew that Ilya Kabakove\'s work was a collaborative effort between him and his wife Emilia, the artist was reluctant to portray the Soviet Union as a failed socialist country.
Kabakovs\'s work seems to suggest that failure is a natural result of a society whose utopian vision comes too early, too early or too big to work, and nature is now correcting the mistakes of the Russian people.
Compared with the contemporaries, the first introduction of Kabakov\'s work shows this.
Komar, Melan, and Oleg Coolick\'s Marxist view of Russia-
Lenin\'s past and unstable capitalist adventures have been taken into account by Mrs. Kasko in both the tragedy of comedy and the narrative of Russian history.
This can be seen by simply putting together the two devices displayed in the years after they arrived in New York.
The man flew into space from his apartment, installed at Ronald Feldman Academy of Fine Arts in 1988, and installed memory therapy at the 1997 Whitney Biennale.
Even before we read the title of the work, the person flying into space from his apartment gave us the impression that comics and treatments with memories evoke the same emotion, if
However, the two also reflect the political reality of disappointment with the country. The group found it necessary to leave the country.
It turns out that 1989 is the year in which our art world finds its own mistakes in art that no longer lead to scandals in Western democracies.
When Jesse Holmes led the Congress to attack the urine Christ of Andrés Serrano, we found this out, this is a notorious cibach Roman photo when it was learned that the photo was funded by the National Arts Endowment Fund.
It was also the year of \"fear\" Scott, who was then called Scott Taylor, a student at the Chicago Institute of Art, who showed his work and what was the right way to show the flag?
As part of the college student exhibition.
The work involves putting an American flag on the floor.
Hanging on the wall right above the flag is a photo of the American flag and a bookshelf with a book on it inviting visitors to record their thoughts on the exhibition.
However, they had to step on the flag in order to do so.
The work immediately sparked daily protests outside the institute, and the Chicago City Council soon passed a local decree banning the blasphemy of the flag.
1989 is also a year when Robert mcpulthorpe plans to cancel a photo tour exhibition hosted by the Corcoran Museum in Washington for the obscenity of museum curator Christina Orr.
Under pressure from the religious right.
Strong public protests sparked international news as protesters projected slides of the most definitive works of the maplethorpes on the museum\'s wall at night, with ARTFORUM on the cover of September
On April, a representative of the police and sheriff\'s office ordered the 400 visitors present to leave the opening ceremony of the Robert mcpulthorpe spectrum exhibition, the perfect moment Museum of Contemporary Art in order to block the building, and record the evidence on the video for later prosecution reference: in the children\'s portraits of Rossi and Jesse McBride-
In his 70 S, the exposed genitals are visible, plus five pieces of work by the legendary X Portfolio of the Maplethorpe, depicting gays engaged in S/M practice.
September 28, 1990 so-and-so
Cincinnati has started an obscene trial called Maplethorpe.
If District prosecutors, senior police officers, local businessmen
Porn groups will be successful, and Dennis Barry, the curator of the hosting Museum, could have expected a sentence of up to six months for the spread of pornography.
The trial ended with an acquittal on the grounds that the photographs were \"image studies\" and \"classic works\", \"although the jury was composed of men and women of the working class, but none of them have been exposed to art or photography before.
Next: when the Wall falls: The Left political art timeline, 1989-2000.
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